A Level Chemistry 9701/22/F/M/16 Q3

Question

3 Over one million tonnes of hydrogen cyanide, HCN, are produced each year using the Andrussow process. The overall equation for the reaction is shown.
CH4(g) + NH3(g) + 1 1/2 O2(g) HCN(g) + 3H2O(g)
(a) (i) Draw a dot-and-cross diagram to represent the bonding in a molecule of ammonia, NH3, and state the shape of the molecule.
(ii) A molecule of hydrogen cyanide, HCN, is shown.
H-C=N The bonding between the carbon and nitrogen atoms consists of one sigma (σ) bond and two pi (π) bonds. Sketch the shape of the sigma bond and one of the pi bonds in the space below. Show clearly the position of the atomic nuclei in each diagram.
(b) The reaction exists as a dynamic equilibrium.
(i) Explain what is meant by the term dynamic equilibrium
(ii) State and explain how the amounts of the chemicals present in the equilibrium mixture will change when the pressure is increased.
(c) The process uses a platinum catalyst, which increases the rate of reaction.
Sketch a Boltzmann distribution on the axes given below and use your diagram to explain how the platinum catalyst increases the rate of the reaction
(d) The reaction of hydrogen cyanide with propanone is an important first step in many organic syntheses.
(i) Give the full name of the mechanism of this reaction
(ii) Complete the diagram to show the mechanism of the reaction of hydrogen cyanide with propanone. Draw the structure of the intermediate and the product of the reaction. Include all relevant charges, partial charges, curly arrows and lone pairs.

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    2021-03-27T16:36:10+08:00

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