SPM Biology 2013


8 . (a) Diagram 8.1 shows various types of food which have been processed through food processing methods.

Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan pelbagai jenis makanan yang telah diproses melalui kaedah pemprosesan makanan.

(i) Explain the purpose of processing the food.

Terangkan tujuan pemprosesan makanan.

(ii) Explain the bad effects of the food processing methods to human health.

Terangkan kesan buruk kaedah pemprosesan makanan terhadap kesihatan manusia.

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(b) Diagram 8.2 shows a food pyramid. Explain the importance of the food for each level in the food pyramid.

Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan piramid makanan. Terangkan kepentingan makanan bagi setiap aras dalam piramid makanan.

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Answer ( 1 )


    8.a)i) –Food processing is important in order to avoid food spoilage. Food processing extends the shelf life of the product thus food can be stored and consumed at a future date. This is useful especially for long periods of  transportation and storage. 

    -Food processing also helps in lessening food wastage as the food can last longer. Furthermore, food processing helps to destroy bacteria and microorganisms which can cause diseases or food poisoning. This ensures that food consumed is not toxic or causes harm to health. 

    Food processing also allows for various products to be made, we get a diversity in food products. 

    ii)-Some food processing methods have preservatives or additives.

    -Preservatives to make food last longer and additives to make food taste better.

    -Both of these can be harmful for human health. Sometimes additives contain a lot of salt which could lead to high blood pressure issues.

    -Furthermore, to make the appearance appealing, some foods have a lot of food colouring in them.

    -Some processed foods also have a lot of sugar added into them, this may cause diabetes if a lot is consumed.


    b)Level 1: Carbohydrates

    -carbohydrates are a very important source of energy for humans.

    -carbohydrate is broken down into glucose which is used in cellular respiration to produce energy.


    Level 2: fruits and vegetables

    -this class of food provides a lot of vitamins essential for the body.

    -Furthermore, they also provide roughage and fibre which is important in preventing constipation.


    Level 3: protein

    -Protein is essential for cellular repair and the building of new cells. -Especially for young children and teenagers, proteins are important for their growth.

    -Proteins also form components in the plasma membrane such as transport proteins.

    -also form enzymes


    Level 4: Lipids

    -Lipids provide energy.

    -They also insulate the body and protects the organs.

    -they are also components in the plasma membrane (phospholipids).

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