SPM Biology 2014

Question

3 . Diagram 3.1 shows the endocrine system in human.

Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan system endokrin manusia.

(a) Name structures S and T.

Namakan struktur S dan T.

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(b)(i) Name on hormone secreted by T.

Namakan satu hormon yang dirembeskan oleh T.

(ii) Explain the role of the hormone named in 3(b)(i) in regulating the level of glucose in the blood.
Terangkan peranan hormon yang dinamakan di 3(b)(i) dalam mengawal atur aras glukosa dalam darah.

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(c) Table 3 shows the concentration of amino acid in blood plasma and urine. Explain the differenced between the concentration of amino acid in blood plasma and urine.

Jadual 3 menunjukkan kepekatan asid amino dalam plasma darah dan dalam air kencing. Terangkan perbezaan di antara kepekatan asid amino dalam plasma darah dengan dalam air kencing.

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(d)(i) Both kidneys of a patient fail to function. This situation causes water imbalance and accumulation of urea in the blood. Explain the effect of kidney failure to the regulation of water balance in blood.

Kedua-dua ginjal seorang pesakit gagl berfungsi. Keadaan ini menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan air dan pengumpulan urea dalam darah. Terangkan kesan kegaglan ginjal terhadap kawal atur keseimbangan air dalam darah.Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

(ii) Diagram 3.2 shows a treatment carried out on the patient. Explain how urea is removed from his blood using a haemodialysis machine.

Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan rawatan yang dijalankan ke atas pesakit itu. Terangkan bagaimana urea disingkirkan daripada darahnya menggunakan mesim hemodialisis.Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

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Answer ( 1 )

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    2021-02-25T14:16:20+08:00
    This answer is edited.

    3.a)S:adrenal gland

    T:pancreas

     

    b)i)insulin (you could also choose to talk about glucagon instead)

    ii) When there is a high blood glucose level, insulin stimulates the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen. Thus, lowering the blood glucose level back to normal.

     

    c)-There is a high concentration of amino acid found in blood plasma, however there is none in urine.

    -This is because, all of the amino acid molecules are reabsorbed at the proximal convoluted tubule via active transport, so there is none found in urine.

     

    d)i)“water balance”

    -When the kidney fails to function, this causes a build up of water in the body and the water balance is not maintained.

    -Excess water in the body may cause swelling and an increase of water in the bloodstream causes blood pressure to rise.

     

    ii)-There is a high concentration of urea in the blood.

    -Due to the concentration gradient there would be a net diffusion of urea from the blood to the dialysis fluid.

    -The filtered blood then flows back to the body via the vein.

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