SPM Biology 2016

Question

4 . Diagram 4.1 shows two examples of variation in human, P and Q.

Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan dua contoh variasi pada manusia, P dan Q.

(a) State the types of variation of P and Q.

Nyatakan jenis variasi bagi P dan Q.

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(b) Diagram 4.2.1 shows identical twins during childhood. Diagram 4.2.2 shows the twins after 20 years. Give two reasons that causes the differences.

Rajah 4.2.1 menunjukkan kembar seiras semasa zaman kanak-kanak. Rajah 4.2.2 menunjukkan pasangan kembar itu selepas 20 tahun. Berikan dua alas an yang menyebabkan perbezaan tersebut.

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(c) Albinism is a genetic disorder. An albino person cannot produce an enzyme for the production of skin pigment, melanin. Melanin is an effective absorber of light. It’s able to dissipate over 99.9% of absorbed UV radiation.

Albinisme merupakan satu ketidakaturan genetik. Seorang penghidap albino tidak boleh menghasilkan enzim untuk penghasilan pigmen kulit, melanin. Melanin ialah sejenis penyerap cahayya yang berkesan. Ia dapat memudarkan kira-kira 99.9% sinar UV yang diserap.

(i) Explain the cause of albinism.

Terangkan sebab albinisme.

(ii) Explain the measures should be taken by an albino person if he wants to carry out outdoor activities during daytime.

Terangkan Langkah yang perlu diambil oleh penghidap albino jika dia mahu menjalankan aktivit luar rumah pada waktu siang.

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(d) Diagram 4.3 shows two different species of elephant, Asian elephant and African elephant.
Rajah 4.3 menunjukkan dua species gajah yang berlainan, gajah Asia dan gajah Afrika.

(i) State another physical difference other than body size that can be observed from African elephant.

Nyatakan perbezaan fizikal lain selain daripada saiz badan yang dapat diperhatikan pada gajah Afrika berbanding dengan gajah Asia.

(ii) Explain your answer in 4(d)(i).

Terangkan jawapan anda di 4(d)(i).

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Answer ( 1 )

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    2021-01-06T12:04:41+08:00

    4. a) P: continuous variation

    Q: discontinuous variation

     

    b) -Environmental effects, diets of the twins. The skinnier one ate lesser growing up.

    -Exercise, the skinnier one did more vigorous exercise.

     

    c) i) The cause of albinism is gene mutation. Since they cannot produce the enzyme they have a lesser production of melanin, resulting in light coloured skin and whitish air.

    ii)-Needs to wear sunscreen to protect his skin.

    -Wearing long sleeves and long pants will help as well. Or clothing which can reflect the Sun rays.

    -Wear a pair of sunglasses as a form of eye protection.

     

    d) i) African elephant has longer tusks than Asian elephant.

    ii) This is most likely caused by the genetic differences between the two elephants. Since they’re of different species they would have different genes.

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