SPM Biology 2016


6 . (a) Diagram 6.1 shows the end of two neurones.

Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan hujung dua neuron.

(i) Explain the functions of structure K and L in the transmission of information from neurone to another neurone.

Terangkan fungsi struktur K dan struktur L dalam pemindahan maklumat dari satu neuron ke neuron yang lain.

(ii) Misuse of stimulants and depressants for a long term will affect a person’s health. Explain the effect.

Penyalahgunaan stimulant dan depresan untuk jangka masa yang lama akan memberi kesan kepada kesihatan seseorang. Terangkan kesan tersebut.

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(b) Diagram 6.2 shows activities of a group of football fans and football players in a stadium. During the match, the heartbeat rate of the football fans and players increases. Explain the relationship between the heartbeat rate and the activities of the football fans and the players.

Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan aktiviti sekumpulan peminat bola sepak dan pemain bola sepak di dalam sebuah stadium. Semasa perlawanan sedang berlangsung, kadar denyutan jantung peminat dna pemain bola sepak meningkat. Terangkan hubungan antara kadar dengyutan jantung dengan aktiviti peminat dan pemain bola sepak.

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Answer ( 1 )

    1. a) i) -Transmitting nerve impulses requires energy.

    -This is generated by numerous mitochondria (K) found at the synaptic terminal.

    -Information transmitted is converted from electrical to chemical signals. 

    -When an electrical impulse arrives, neurotransmitters (L) are the chemical substances which are released from the presynaptic terminal in order to send information across the synapse. 


    ii)-Stimulants and depressants affect the transmission of nerve impulses, they cause effects in the nervous system.

    -Stimulants increase the transmission of the nerve impulses across the synapse.

    -Get hyperactivity, feeling of ecstasy, long term usage causes seizures and heart attacks.

    -Depressants decrease the transmission of the nerve impulses.

    -Misuse can cause an individual to develop depression, breathing slows down, slow heart rate. 

    -Overdosing on depressants and stimulants is fatal and severely impacts the health of a human being.



    -The fans and players are feeling excited when the team plays well and stressed when the game gets intense.

    -Signals are sent to the integration centre the brain.

    -The brain then signals the adrenal glands to secrete more adrenaline

    -Adrenaline causes the heart rate to increase.

    -The heart works faster to pump blood.

    -Blood vessels leading to skeletal muscles undergo vasodilation. So that more oxygen and nutrients can be supplied to the working muscle.

    -Adrenaline causes breathing rate to increase so that more oxygen can be taken into the body for cellular respiration.

    -The liver is stimulated to produce more glucose from glycogen.

    -Pupils are dilated so more light can enter the eye creating better vision

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