SPM Biology 2017


9. (a) Diagram 9.1 shows an atmospheric phenomenon. A phenomenon that cuases low visibility due to fine suspended particles at the atmospheric layer closed to the Earth surface. Discuss the phenomenon based on the following issues:

Rajah 9.1 menunjukkan satu fenomena atmosfera. Satu fenomena yang menyebakan kadar penglihatan yang rendah disebabkan oleh zarah-zarah terampai  yang halus pada lapisan atmosfera berhampiran dengan permukaan bumi. Bincangkan fenomena tersebut berdasarkan isu-isu berikut.

(i) The amount of suspended particles in the air increases.

Jumlah zarah-zarah terampai di udara meningkat.

(ii) This phenomenon will affect the living organisms.

Fenomena ini akan memberi kesan ke atas organisma hidup.

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(b) Diagram 9.2 shows the current situation of Bukit Mesra. A developer has proposed to build a hospital and a few quarters for the hospital staff in Bukit Mesra as shown in Diagram 9.3.

Rajah 9.2 menunjukkan situasi semasa di Bukit Mesra. Pemaju telah mencadangkan untuk membina sebuah hospital dan beberapa buah kuarters bagi kakitangan hospital di Bukit Mesra seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 9.3.

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The developer has listed the following steps to ensure the safety of the area:

Pemaju itu telah menyenaraikan Langkah-langkah berikut untuk memastikan keselamatan Kawasan itu:

  • Build barriers to prevent landslide.

Membina penghadang bagi menghalang tanah runtuh.

  • Build a drainage system.

Membina system perparitan

The proposal has been rejected by the local authority. The developers plans to submits a new proposal to the local authority with a few addition dafty steps. Suggest and explain what are the additional safety steps that the developer should include in the proposal in order to convince the authority.

Cadangan itu telah ditolak oleh pihak berkuasa tempatan. Pemaju itu kemudiannya merancang untuk menghantar cadangan baharu kepada pihak berkuasa tempatan beberapa Langkah keselamatan tambahan. Cadang dan terangkan apakah Langkah keselamatan yang perlu seratkan dalam kertas cadangan itu bagi meyakinkan pihak berkuasa.

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    9. a)

    -The phenomenon is haze. Increased release of fine dust particles, smoke or soot into the air.

    -This is caused by open burning, vehicle exhaust fumes, burning of fuels in industries.

    -Haze can affect the health of living organisms.

    -Too much particulate matter in the air irritates the eyes and lungs.

    -Leads to difficulty in breathing, damages our airways and lungs.

    -Causes the occurrence of conjunctivitis, bronchitis. Asthmatic people would have a very hard time breathing.

    -Haze blocks our visibility. Drivers would have to be extra careful in order to avoid accidents. Haze creates this blanket of dust which blocks the view, it becomes difficult to see road signs or bumps.



    -The developer should include plans for tree replantation since they would be clearing a large area. Tree roots could help to hold the soil together to avoid land slides from occurring.

    -Tree replantation also ensures that global warming is reduced. And reduces the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air.

    -Landslides might even cause floods to occur, thus the developer should set up some plans for floods as well.

    -The drainage system suggested should be revised to account for the occurrence of floods.

    -Set up flood barriers.

    -Ensure that the newly constructed buildings would be built above flood levels (a few metres off the ground). The houses and school originally there should be modified. Waterproofing the buildings can help in the case of floods. Reinforcing the buildings with sturdier materials would help as well.

    -Warning systems should also be set up to inform the people if landslides and floods really do happen.

    -Hospitals have chemical waste to dispose off. They need to treat this chemical waste before it gets thrown into the drainage system.

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