SPM Biology 2017

Question
  1. Cell wall is made up of fibre X. Diagram 3.1 shows the fibre X and its monomers.

Dinding sel terbina daripada gentian X. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan gentian X dan monomernya.

(a) Name fibre X and monomer Q.

Namakan gentian X dan monomer Q

(b) Explain how fibre X maintains the shape of a plant cell.

Terangkan bagaimana gentian X mengekalkan bentuk suatu sel tumbuhan.

(c) Protease and lipase are enzymes that are commonly used in baby food industry. Explain why enzyme is used in the production of baby food.

Protease dan lipase ialah enzim yang biasanya diugnakan dalam industry makanan bayi. Terangkan mengapa enzim digunakan dalam penghasilan makanan bayi.

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(d) An apple contains a lot of pectin. Pectin is a substance which helps to stick plant cells together. In industry, pectinase is used in the extraction of apple to produce apple juice industrially. Apple juice which is extracted using pectinase is clear while homemade apple juice is cloudy. Explain why the enzyme pectinase is used in the fruit juice production.

Epal mempunyai pektin yang banyak. Pektin ialah bahan yang membantu untuk melekatkan sel-sel tumbuhan Bersama. Dalam industri, pektimase digunakan dalam pengekstrkan buah epal bagi menghasilkan jus buah secara industri. Jus epal yang diekstrak dengan menggunakan pektinase adalah jernih manakala jus epal buatan sendiri adalah keruh. Terangkan mengapa enzim pektimase digunakan dalam penghasilkan jus buah.

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(e) Activation energy is the minimum energy required to start a biochemical reaction. Diagram 3.2 shows the effect of enzyme on the activation energy of the biochemical reaction. Based on Diagram 3.2, explain how enzyme affects the rate of biochemical reaction.

Tenaga pengaktifan ialah tenaga minima yang diperlukan untuk memulakan suate tindak balas biokimia. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan kesan enzim ke atas pengaktifan bagi tindak balas biokimia tersebut. Berdasarkan Rajah 3.2, terangkan bagaimana enzim memperngaruhi kadar tindak balas biokimia.

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Answer ( 1 )

    6
    2020-12-31T17:13:43+08:00

    3. a) X: Cellulose

    Q: Glucose

     

    b) Cellulose is a very stable polysaccharide, it is tough and fibrous as well. This makes the cell wall rigid and prevents the plant cell from bursting due to excess water. The cell wall would be able to withstand the increasing pressure created within the cell and maintains its shape. Even if water leaves the plant cell, the cell wall doesn’t shrink due to its rigidity. 

     

    c) The digestive system of babies are still not very good at breaking down solid foods. Thus, by pre-digesting the food with enzymes like protease and lipase, the baby could then easily digest the foods and obtain the nutrients from them.

     

    d) Pectinase helps to breakdown pectin. Pectin is a component of the cell wall found in apples. Without pectin the plant cells wouldn’t stick to each other and by breaking down the cell wall component, it makes it easier to extract the apple juice from the cells.

     

    e) Enzymes lowers the activation energy required for a biochemical reaction to occur. This helps to increase the rate of the biochemical reaction as it takes a lesser amount of energy to kick start the reaction.

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