SPM Biology 2017

Question

4 . Diagram 4 shows a part of human respiratory system.

Rajah 4 menunjukkan sebahagian system respiratori manusia.

(a) (i) Name the tubes P and Q.

Namakan salur P dan salur Q.

(ii) Explain a characteristic of P which is related to its function.

Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers SolutionCher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

 

(b) (i) A heavy smoker is prone to persistent cough. Explain how this habit reduces the efficiency of respiratory system to function.

Seorang perokok tegar mudah mendapat batuk berturusan. Terangkan bagaimana tabiat ini mengurankan kecekapan system respirasi berfungsi.

Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

(c) Give one suggestion on how to increase the ventilation rate during breathing. Explain your suggestion.

Berikan satu cadangan bagaimana untuk meningkatkan kadar ventilasi semasa bernafas. Terangkan cadangan anda

Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

New Comer 0

Answer ( 1 )

    1
    2021-01-03T23:00:20+08:00

    4. a) i) P: trachea

    Q: bronchus

    ii) On the outer surface of P (trachea) there are C-shaped cartilage rings keeping the trachea open for air to enter. During inhalation, atmospheric pressure is higher than pressure within the trachea, these cartilage rings ensure that the trachea resists the higher atmospheric pressure and prevents the trachea from collapsing. 

     

    b) i) Persistent coughing causes the heavy smoker to consistently expel air from within the lungs. There is a high chance that newly inhaled oxygen would get expelled as well. With a reduction of oxygen concentration within the lungs, the rate of respiration reduces as well. Body cells would not be able to receive adequate oxygen supply for cellular respiration.

    ii)  Smoke contains nicotine which restricts the beating movement of the cilia of epithelial cells. This causes difficulty in removing mucus and foreign particles, they cannot be efficiently swept away to be coughed out.

     

    c) To increase the ventilation rate an individual would have contract and relax the intercostal muscles and diaphragm at a faster rate. Oxygen can then enter and carbon dioxide leave the lungs at a quicker rate. 

Leave an answer