SPM Biology 2017


5 . Diagram 5.1 shows a part of the female reproductive system in human. Diagram 5.2 shows the stages of the ovarian cycle in the ovary.

Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan sebahagian system pembiakan perempuan pada manusia. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan peringkat kitar ovari dalam ovari.

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(a) Based on Diagram 5.2,

Berdasarkan Rajah 5.2,

(i) explain the development of structure P to from structure Q.

Terangkan perkembangan struktur P untuk membentuk struktur Q.

(ii) Structure Q will develop to from structure R. Explain the differences between structure Q and R.

Struktur Q akan berkembang untuk membentuk struktur R. Terankan perbezaan antara struktur Q dan struktur R.

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(b)(i) The following hormones are involved in ovum formation. Describe how the secretion of one hormone controls the secretion of the other hormones before the ovulation occurs.

Berikut adalah hormon-hormon yang terlibat dalam pembentukan ovum. Jelaskan bagaimana rembesan satu hormon mengawal perembesan hormon-hormon yang lain sebelum ovulasi berlaku.

(ii) Contraceptive pills contain oestrogen and progesterone hormones. Explain the role of progestron hormone in the prevention of pregnancy.

PIl pencegah behamilan mengandungi hormon estrogen dan progesterone. Terangkan peranan hormon progesterone dalam pencegahan kehamilan.

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(c) In certain pregnancies, an injury occurs in the Fallopian tube which will cause the formation of scar tissue as show in Diagram 5.1.  Explain how the presence of scar tissue may affect the pregnancy.

Dalam sestengah kehamilan, suatu kecederaan berlaku dalam tiub Fallopio yang akan menyebabkan pembentukan tisu parut seperti ditunjukkan dalm Rajah 5.1. Terangkan bagaimana kehadiaran tisu parut boleh memberi kesan kepada kehamilan.Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution


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Answer ( 1 )


    ᶘ ᵒᴥᵒᶅ Good luck with your SPM revision! I’m going to touch on the main points for answering these questions.


    5. a) i) -P (primary follicle), primary oocyte enclosed in a layer of folicle cells.

    -Primary oocyte completes meiosis I to produce a secondary oocyte and the first polar body.

    -Secondary oocyte surrounded by layers of follicle cells forms the secondary follicle (Q).

    ii) Structure Q contains the secondary oocyte while structure R (corpus luteum) no longer contains the secondary oocyte. Follicle cells of Q secrete oestrogen while R secretes progesterone.


    b) i) -Low levels of oestrogen produced by cells of the small follicles. Low levels create a negative feedback on the anterior pituitary gland keeping FSH and LH at a low level.

    -Increased levels of oestrogen creates a positive feedback , hypothalamus is stimulated to secrete more GnRH.  Increased levels of GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to increase the release of FSH and LH.

    ii) Progesterone inhibits secretion of FSH and LH. Prevents developments of follicular cells and ovulation.


    c) It becomes difficult for sperm to meet with the ovum released/ lesser sperm can meet with the ovum. Reduces the chances of fertilization from occurring.


    Fertilized ovum (zygote) might have difficulty in being transported along the Fallopian tube to the uterus for implantation. Embryo might end up implanting within the Fallopian tube itself.

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