SPM Biology 2017

Question

7 . Diagram 7.2 shows body cells and blood vessels.

Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan sel badan dan salur darah.

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(a) Based on Diagram 7.1, name one example of nutrient in the blood and describe how the nutrient can be delivered to the cells.
Berdasarkan Rajah 7.1, namakan satu contoh nutrient dalam darah dan huraikan bagaimana nutiren tersebut dapat dihantar kepada sel.

(b) The human circulatory system is responsible for transport of blood, oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. When the blood flows to a specific part of the body is reduced, the individual may experience symptoms of poor blood circulation.Diagram 7.2 shows blood flow in a normal artery and blood flow in an artery with plaque. Explain the cause of poor blood circulation and the effect to the health.

Sistem peredaran darah manusia bertindak untuk mengangkut darah, oksigen dan nutrient ke seluruh badan. Apabila darah yang mengalir ke bahagian badan yang spesifik berkurangan, individu tersebut mungkin mengalmi simptom peredaran darah yang lemah. Rajah 7.2 mennunjukkan pengaliran darah dalam arteri yang normal dan pengaliran darah dalam arteri yang mengandungi plak. Terangkan sebab peredaran darah yang lemah dan kesan kepada kesihatan.

Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

(c) Diagram 7.3 shows two methods on how the baby obtain immunity against diseases. Compare the immunities obtained by the baby through these two methods.

Rajah 7.3 menunjukkan dua kaedah bagaimana bayi memperoleh keimunan terhadap penyakit. Bandingkan keimuman yang diperoleh oleh bayi melalui dia kaedah ini.

Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

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Answer ( 1 )

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    2021-01-04T17:38:42+08:00

    7. a) An example is glucose.

    -Blood flows from arterial end to the venous end of the capillaries.

    -Blood at the arterial end enters with a high pressure as capillaries have a smaller diameter compared to the arteries.

    -High blood pressure causes fluid from blood plasma which contains glucose to diffuse into the extracellular space (interstitial fluid).

    -Glucose then diffuses from the interstitial fluid into the body cells.

     

    b) -Poor blood circulation is caused by the presence of plaque. Deposition of plaques leads to atherosclerosis.

    -Plaque causes a narrowing of the lumen of arteries. Blood flow is restricted resulting in poor blood circulation.

    -Consumption of foods high in cholesterol and fats can lead to the formation of plaque.

    -Narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels increases the risk of high blood pressure as the heart has to pump with a larger force to get oxygenated blood all around the body and overcome the reduction in blood flow. High blood pressure may cause arteries to burst.

    -If not enough blood gets to the heart, this could lead to angina pectoris or a myocardial infarction. And if arteries which supply the brain are blocked this could lead to a stroke.

     

    c)

    Method 1 Method 2
    Baby acquires immunity through breast milk. Baby acquires immunity through vaccination.
    A form of naturally acquired passive immunity. A form of artificially acquired active immunity.
    Gets immediate immunity. Milk already contains the antibodies. No immediate immunity. The body takes some time to produce its own antibodies
    Short term (temporary) immunity because antibodies are not being produced by the body. Long term immunity because the body produces its own antibodies
    Body not induced to produced antibodies which specifically target an antigen. Introduce vaccine containing dead, weakened form of the pathogen. Body is induced to produce its own antibodies which target the antigen introduced.

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