SPM Biology 2017


8. (a) Diagram 8 shows several eating habits of human. Explain how the eating habits affect the human health.
Rajah 8 menunjukkan beberapa tabiat pemakanan manusia. Terangkan bagaimana tabiat pemakanan tersebut mempengaruhi kesihatan manusia.

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(b) Table 8 shows the nutrient content of chicken burger and a vegetable burger.
Jadual 8 menunjukkan kandungan nutrient burger ayam dan burger sayuran.

(i) Based on Table 8, suggest the best burger for the diet of a 16 years old student.

Berdasarkan Jadual 8, cadangan burger yang terbaik untuk diet murid berumur 16 tahun.

(ii) The student consumes the burger everyday for a long period of time. Discuss the good and the bad effects of the diet on his health.

Pelajar berkenaan mengambil burger itu setiap hari untul tempoh yang Panjang. Bincangkan kesan baik dan kesan buruk pemakanan it uke atas kesihatannya.

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Answer ( 1 )


    8. a) I would advise you to break this question into the four eating habits. It becomes clearer and is more structured, so the examiners would have an easier time giving marks.

    Food is not taken at regular time

    -If an individual does not take meals at a regular time and has long periods of hunger, they may develop gastritis.

    -The stomach secretes gastric juice which contains hydrochloric acid. If there’s no food to digest, the acidic gastric juice will slowly corrode the epithelial lining of the stomach wall.

    -A breach in the stomach wall might create a gastric ulcer.

    Excessive intake of fats

    -this could lead to obesity (overweight) and cardiovascular problems.

    -build up of plaque in blood vessels. Impedes blood flow.

    -causes high blood pressure, angina, heart attacks.

    Afraid to eat any food

    -anorexia nervosa. individuals deprive themselves of food. the body doesn’t get enough nutrients,

    -start to lose fat, muscles deteriorate.

    -hormonal problems, both endocrine and reproductive systems are affected.

    Self induced vomiting after taking meal


    -vomiting causes a release of contents from the stomach.

    -stomach acid could corrode the throat and may get loss of teeth.

    -malnutrition, have irregular periods due to hormonal imbalance.


    I sometimes write more points than you actually need. I’m giving you a variety so you can see the different points you can touch on during these sorts of essay questions. 

    b) i) The best burger would be the vegetable burger.

    -16 year old teenagers need an adequate amount of proteins and carbohydrates as they’re still growing and require energy for their daily activities.

    – they shouldn’t take in too much fat as this could lead to cardiovascular health problems. reducing fat intake also helps to reduce the appearance of acne.

    -require sodium for maintaining water balance.

    -more fibre to reduce constipation. helps with bowel movement.

    -Conclusion: the vegetable burger would be best as it contains an adequate amount of protein, carbohydrate, sodium, less fat and more fibre.



    Good effects:
    – reducing his fat intake also helps to reduce his cholesterol levels. This can prevent him from developing any cardiovascular related diseases in the future.

    -reduce the chances of developing plaque in blood vessels. He can also avoid being overweight or developing obesity.

    -fibre ensures that he has good bowel moments as it helps with peristalsis.

    Bad effects:
    -Consuming too much of something isn’t good. If he consumes the burger everyday, his body would just end up accumulating protein, carbohydrate, fats and sodium.

    -too much carbohydrates would cause him to develop diabetes as his glucose levels will start to rise.

    -might have high blood pressure due to excessive intake of sodium.

    -too much protein increases the concentration of uric acid. Uric acid once crystallized may develop into kidney stones and give him kidney problems.

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