SPM Biology 2018

Question

4. Diagram 4.1 shows the gland J and adrenal glands which secrete hormones that involve in regulating the content of water and salt in blood.

Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan kelenjar J dan kelenjar adrenal yang merembeskan hormon yang terlibat dalam mengawal atur kandungan air dan garam dalam darah.

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(a) (i) Name the hormones L and M

Namakan hormon L dan hormon M.

(a) (ii) The water content in blood is lower than the normal range. Explain how gland J regulates the water balance in the blood.

Kandungan air dalam darah lebih rendah daripada julat yang normal. Terangkan bagaimana kelenjar J mengawal atur keseimbangan air dalam darah.

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(b) A man climbs Kota Kinabalu and he found out that the surrounding temperature is low. Explain the action of adrenal glands to overcome the situation above in regulating the body temperature.

Seorang lelaki mendaki Gunung Kinabalu dan mendapati suhu persekitaran adalah rendah. Terangkan Tindakan kelenjar adrenal bagu mengatasi situasi di atas dalam mengawal atur suhu badan. Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

c) Diagram 4.2 shows the process of haemodialysis. Explain what will happen if the semi-permeable tubing is straightened.

Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan proses hemodialisis. Teranfkan apa yang akan berlaku jika tubul dialysis separa telap diluruskan.

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(d) The information below shows the symptoms of a patient with kidney failure. Discuss the consequences of the kidney failure to the patient.

Maklumat di bawah menunjukkan simptom serorang pesakit yang mengalami kegagalan ginjal. Bincangkan kesan kegagalan ginjal kepada pesakit itu.

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Answer ( 1 )

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    2020-12-29T18:17:39+08:00
    1. a) i) 

    L is antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and M is aldosterone.

    ii)  When water content in blood is low, blood osmotic pressure increases. Osmoreceptors found within the hypothalamus detects this increase in osmotic pressure and the posterior pituitary gland gets more stimulated to release larger amounts of ADH into the bloodstream. An increase in the level of ADH results in an increase in the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and the collecting duct to water, this increases the reabsorption of water from filtrate into the blood. The water content in blood then increases back to the normal range. 

     

    b) you need to be careful for this question. Aldosterone regulates the salt content in blood but this question is asking about body temperature so instead you would talk about adrenaline.

    When the surrounding temperature is low, the adrenal glands would be stimulated to secrete more adrenaline. Due to the increase in adrenaline, the smooth muscles in the arterioles would contract and the arterioles would undergo vasoconstriction. This results in lesser amount of blood flowing near the skin and reduces heat loss from the skin via radiation.  Furthermore, adrenaline also increases the metabolic rate in target tissues so that more heat can be generated by the body.

     

    c) Straightening the semi-permeable tubing causes a reduction in the surface area. With a smaller surface area, the haemodialysis process would be less efficient, there is a lesser chance for excess salts and waste products like urea to diffuse out of the blood. Thus, these excess salts and waste products would still remain in the blood and be transferred back into the body.

     

    d) The kidney regulates water and salt content in the blood via the process of osmoregulation. Without efficient osmoregulation, there is a build up of fluid within the blood and also in the extracellular fluid (ECF)-interstitial fluid. Therefore, this causes swelling in the leg and build up of fluid in the lungs.  Furthermore, a build up of fluid in the blood also causes high blood pressure to occur which could have caused blood to be present in the urine.

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