SPM Biology 2019

Question

2 . Diagram 2.1 shows bone J in the vertebral column of human.

Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan tulang J dalam turus vertebra manusia.

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(a) (i) Name bone J.

Namakan tulang J.

(ii) Explain the function of K.

Terangkan fungsi K.

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(b) (i) Table 1 shows the vertebrae which were taken from different parts of the vertebral column. Which vertebra has the largest centrum? Tick the correct answer in the space provided in Table 1.

Jadual 1 menunjukkan vertebra yang diambil daripada bahagian turus vertebra yang berbeza. Tandakan bagi jawapan yang betul pada ruang yang disediakan dalam Jadual 1.

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(ii) Based on your answer in 2(b)(i), why is that vertebra has the largest centrum?

Berdasarkan jawapan anda di 2(b)(i), mengapakan vertebra itu mempunyai sentrum yang terbesar?

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(c) Diagram 2.2 shows the structure of knee joint of an athlete before injury, during injury and after a treatment.

Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan struktur sendi lutut seorang atlet sebelum cedera, semasa cedera dan selepas rawatan.

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(i) What is L?

Apakah L?

(ii) Explain the knee problem suffered by the athlete before the treatment.

Terangkan masalah lutut yang dihidapi oleh tersebut sebulum rawatan.

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(d) Diagram 2.3 shows the forelimb and hindlimb of a rabbit. The rabbit can do a great distance leap. Explain why.

Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan anggota hadapan dan anggota belakang seekor arnab. Arnab boleh melakukan lompatan yang jauh. Terangkan mengapa.

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Answer ( 1 )

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    2020-12-18T10:43:35+08:00

    2. a)

    i) vertebra

    ii) K acts like a cushion which absorbs shock. It also helps in reducing friction between two vertebrae when movements are made. 

     

    b) i) Tick the 2nd one which is a lumbar vertebra.

    ii) This vertebra has a large centrum to withstand the body weight of the lower back. 

     

    c) i) Cartilage

    ii) The athlete has a cracked and fractured cartilage. This is most likely due to the synovial membrane secreting lesser synovial fluid. Synovial fluid is a lubricant and without it the ends of bones may come into direct contact creating friction. This friction between the bones can cause wear and tear of the cartilage and later cause pain within the knee joint. 

     

    d) The hindlimb of the rabbit is muscular and long. It can generate a powerful force in order for the rabbit to leap. At rest the flexor muscles of the hindlimb contract. Then when the flexor muscle relaxes and extensor muscle contracts, the hindlimb is extended backwards, creating a powerful force, propelling the rabbit forward creating a great distance leap. 

    Furthermore, the shorter forelimb helps to stabilize the rabbit as it lands. 

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