SPM Biology 2019

Question

3 . Diagram 3.1 shows two types of variation in humans. Two characteristics of five male individuals of the same age P, Q, R, S and T are shown.

3 . Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan dua jenis variasi pada manusia. Dua ciri bagi lima individu lelaki P, Q, R dan T yang sebaya ditunjukkan.

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(a) Based on Diagram 3.1,

Berdasarkan Rajah 3.1,

(i) State the type of variation for the following characteristic:

Nyatakan jenis variasi bagi ciri berikut:

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(ii) State two differences between the characteristics based on the following aspects:

Nyatakan dua perbezuan antara ciri-ciri ini berdasarkan aspek berikut:

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(b) Using the information in Diagram 3.1, state the meaning of variation.

Menggunakan maklumat dalam Rajah 3.1, nyatakan maksud variasi.

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(c) Diagram 3.2 shows how carrots can be produced in large quantity by using technique M.

Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan bagaimana lobak merah boleh dihasilkan dalam kuantiti yang banyak dengan menggunakan teknik M.

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(i) Name technique M.

Namakan teknik M.

(ii) All the plant offsprings produced are genetically identical. Explain why.

Semua anak pokok yang terhasil adalah seiras dari segi genetik. Terangkan mengapa.

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(d) Diagram 3.3 shows a banana tree which produces different sizes of fruits. Explain one factor that affects the size of the fruits.

Rajah 3.3 menunjukkan satu pokok pisang yang menghasilkan buah yang berlainan saiz.

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Answers ( 3 )

    0
    2020-12-17T08:13:13+08:00

    3.a)

    i) continuous variation 

    ii) Intermediate value: 

    Height – has intermediate value

    Shape of earlobe- no intermediate value

    Why?

    – based on the graph you can see that there’s a continuum for height (a bell curve)

    – you can only either have free or attached earlobes. 

    Cause of variation: 

    Height- due to the combination of gene and environment effects

    Shape of earlobe- due to gene effects

     

    b)Variation is the phenotypic differences between individuals. Based on Diagram 3.1, it can be seen that there are two types of variation, which are continuous variation (height) and discontinuous variation (shape of earlobe). For continuous variation, the phenotypic differences form a continuum, there’s a range of intermediate phenotypes between shortest and tallest height. Whereas for discontinuous variation there are distinct phenotypes, you either have free or attached earlobes.  

    To answer this question it would be best to include some examples from the question itself. “Using the information in Diagram 3.1”

    Best answer
    0
    2020-12-17T09:08:46+08:00

    3.

    a) i) continuous variation 

    ii) Intermediate value: 

    Height – has intermediate value

    Shape of earlobe- no intermediate value

    Why?

    – based on the graph you can see that there’s a continuum for height (a bell curve)

    – you can only either have free or attached earlobes. 

     

    Cause of variation: 

    Height- due to the combination of gene and environment effects like diet

    Shape of earlobe- due to gene effects

     

    b) Variation is the phenotypic differences between individuals. Based on Diagram 3.1, it can be seen that there are two types of variation, which are continuous variation (height) and discontinuous variation (shape of earlobe). For continuous variation, the phenotypic differences form a continuum, there’s a range of intermediate phenotypes between shortest and tallest height. Whereas for discontinuous variation there are distinct phenotypes, you either have free or attached earlobes.  

    To answer this question it’s best to use example from the diagram. “Using the information in Diagram 3.1”

     

    c) i) tissue culture technique 

    ii) The plant offspring are genetically identical because they are produced through asexual reproduction (vegetative reproduction). After extracting plant cells from the carrot plant, each cell can undergo mitosis to develop into a mature organism. A single cell has full genetic potential to develop into a mature plant.

     

    d) The environment can affect the size of fruits. For example, sunlight. The banana fruits on top are able to receive more sunlight compared to the lower banana fruits, thus they can grow larger in size compared to the lower ones.

    0
    2021-01-01T18:37:20+08:00

    The written answer is attached as followed:

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