SPM Biology 2019


8. (a) Diagram 8 shows several dairy products produced from fresh milk.
Rajah 8 menunjukkan beberapa produk tenusu yang dihasilkan daripada susu segar. Cher Questions Solution Bank Rumusan Jawapan SPM & IGCSE Questions Answers Solution

Explain the importance of food processing in the production of dairy products.

Terangkan kepentingan pemprosesan makanan dalam penghasilkan produk tenusu.

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(b) The following information shows the Body Mass Index (BMI) data obtained from SEGAK evaluation of a student.

Maklumat berikut menunjukkan data Indeks Jisim Badan (BMI) yang diperoleh daripada ujian SEGAK serorang murid.

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(i) Determine the BMI category of the student. Show your calculation.

Tentukan kategori BMI bagi murid tersebut. Tunjukkan pengiraan anda.

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(ii) Based on the BMI di 8(b)(i), discuss the possible health problems faced by the student. Suggest several ways to improve the BMI to the normal range.

Berdasarkan kategori BMI di 8(b)(i), bincangkan masalah kesihatan yang mungkin dihadapi oleh murid tersebut. Cadangkan beberapa langkah untik menambah baik nilai BMI ke julat normal.

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Answer ( 1 )


    8. a) Food processing is important in order to avoid food spoilage. Food processing extends the shelf life of the product thus the dairy products can be stored and consumed at a future date. This is useful especially for products with long periods of transportation and storage. 


    Food processing also helps in lessening food wastage as the dairy products can last longer. Furthermore, food processing such as pasteurization helps to destroy bacteria and microorganisms which can cause diseases (tuberculosis and typhoid) or food poisoning. This ensures that food consumed is not toxic or causes harm to human health. Moreover, pasteurization is great because it is able to maintain the nutrient content (vitamin B) and natural flavour of the milk. 


    Food processing also allows for various products to be made, there is a diversity in food products. Based on the diagram, milk is processed to produce powdered milk, yoghurt and cheese. This helps the economy of our country as well since various products can be made and sold in market. 



    i) BMI = 97/1.6^2 (be careful with the unit here, you have to convert cm to m first)

    BMI= 37.89


    BMI category of the student is obese. 


    ii) Obese people would usually have high blood cholesterol levels. Thus they are susceptible to cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. Cholesterol build up in arteries could also lead to atherosclerosis where plaque deposits form on the inner lining of blood vessels. These plaques causes the narrowing of blood vessels which can then impede blood flow. If not enough blood gets to the heart especially if coronary arteries are blocked, this could lead to angina pectoris (chest pains) or a myocardial infarction (heart attack) . And if arteries which supply the brain are blocked this could lead to a stroke. This is because both the heart and the brain are not receiving enough oxygen due to less delivery of oxygenated blood. 


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    Moreover, when the plaques are hardened by calcium this could cause arteriosclerosis which is a condition where the arteries loose their elasticity. Furthermore, the narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels increases the risk of high blood pressure as the heart has to pump with a larger force in order to get oxygenated blood all around the body and overcome the reduction in blood flow. High blood pressure is dangerous as it may cause arteries to burst. 


    In order to improve the BMI back to the normal range, the student needs to reduce the intake of fats and carbohydrates. Instead replace meals with more fruits, vegetables and protein. Furthermore, the student needs to practice having a balanced diet and avoid excessive consumption of food, eat in moderate amounts. Exercise is also important as it helps with weight loss and improving overall health.

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